Mahatma Gandhi's Last Will, 20
Some Gandhi Reflections...
Gandhi as Others
the Missing Laureate - Øyvind Tønnesson
Violence as a Political Strategy: Gandhi & Western Thinkers - Hugh
Tinker, 1980 "...politics is concerned only formally with power and government and fundamentally with the moral development of human beings. Politics is about people, and how they endeavour to face the challenge of their times.
Roy... put, his beliefs this way: "When a man really wants freedom and to live in a democratic society he may not be able to free the whole world . . . but he can to a large extent at least free himself by behaving as a rational and moral being, and if he can do this, others around him can do the same, and these again will spread freedom by their example." I don't think I can put it any better. If that is the goal, then
Gandhi is more relevant than ever, both in India and in the West..."
World & Mahatma Gandhi - R.R.Diwakar
A Summary of
M.K. Gandhi's Technique for Political Action - Mary Selby, 1995
Reflections on Gandhi -
George Orwell, January 1949
from Birmingham Jail - Martin Luther King
Some Gandhi Reflections
Mahatma Gandhi on the 135th anniversary of his Birth - Sachi Sri
Kantha, 2 October 2004
Gandhi's 53rd Death Anniversary - Sachi Sri Kantha, 31 January 2001
Gandhi, Madras Hindu
and the Brahmin Establishment - Sachi Sri Kantha, 15 April 1992
Mahatma Gandhi and Tamils
- Sachi Sri Kantha, 15 June 1991
- Writings on Line
The Story of
my Experiments with Truth - M.K. Gandhi also in PDF
|Hind Swaraj or Indian Home
Rule - M.K. Gandhi
|Constructive Programme: Its
Meaning and Place - M.K. Gandhi
Gandhi - S.R. Tikekar
|The Mind of
Mahatma Gandhi - R.K. Prabhu & U.R. Rao
from Gandhi - N.K. Bose
Life of Mohandas
Karamchand Gandhi - D.G. Tendulkar & V.K. Jhaveri
|Brief Outline of Gandhi’s
Philosophy - Stephen Murphy
A Biography - B.R.Nanda
A Pictorial Biography - B.R. Nanda
|Drawings on Gandhi
& Bhagat Singh
by Paresh R. Vaidya
on Bhagat Singh
The Complete Site on Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi Research and Media Service
- Mark Shepherd
|Itihaas: Modern: Profile -- Mahatma
|Mahatma Gandhi Ashram
Books by Gandhi
* indicates link to Amazon.com
bookshop on line
*M.K. Gandhi - An Autobiography
or the Story of My Experiments With Truth, 1927
*Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Green (Editor) - My Life Story :
The Later Years, 1920-1948 , 1985
*M. K. Gandhi - Ashram
Observances in Action , 1983
*Mahatma Gandhi, et al - The Essential
Writings of Mahatma Gandhi , 1993
*M.K.Gandhi - Letters to
Mirabehn , 1983
*M. K. Gandhi - Satyagraha in
South Africa , 1979
*Mahatma Gandhi - Mahatma Gandhi
and Leo Tolstoy Letters , 1987
*M.K. Gandhi (Editor) - The Bhagavadgita
*Mahatma Gandhi -The South
African Gandhi : an abstract of the speeches and writings of M. K. Gandhi, 1893-1914
*M.K. Gandhi, et al - The Words of
Gandhi/Cassette/CP 1740 , 1984
*M.K. Gandhi, K. Ed. Kripalani - All Men Are
Brothers , 1982
Books on Gandhi
*Eknath Easwaran, Michael N. Nagler Gandhi, the Man
: The Story of His Transformation 1997
*Catherine Clement, Ruth Sharman (Translator) - Gandhi : The
Power of Pacifism (Discoveries) / Paperback / Published 1996
*Richard Attenborough - The Words of
*Louis Fischer - Gandhi : His
Life and Message for the World
*Louis Fischer - Essential
Gandhi; An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work and Ideas, 1983
*R.K. Prabhu & U.R.Rao (Ed) - The Mind of
Mahatma Gandhi Ahemedabad: Navjivan Publishing House,1960
*Homer A. Jack (Editor) - The Gandhi
Reader : A Sourcebook of His Life and Writings, 1995
*Erik Homburger Erikson Gandhi's Truth :
On the Origins of Militant Nonviolence 1993
*Raghavan Iyer (Editor) - The Moral and
Political Writings of Mahatma Gandhi 1986
*Dennis Dalton (Editor) - Selected
Political Writings Mahatma Gandhi, 1996
*Judith M. Brown - Gandhi's Rise to
Power, Indian Politics 1915-1922,1972
|Raghavan Iyer - Mahatma Gandhi - A Biography
|Rajmohan Gandhi - The Good Boatman ( A Portrait of Gandhi)
Gandhi - including Real Audio
Mahatma Gandhi - An Average Man
2 October 1869 - 30 January 1948
10 May 1998
"...When I despair, I
remember that all through history the way of truth and
love has always won. There have been tyrants and
murderers and for a time they seem invincible, but in
the end, they always fall - think of it, always...
Exploitation and domination of one nation over another
can have no place in a world striving to put an end to
Gandhi & Pirabaharan
Gandhi & Tamil Eelam
Mahatma Gandhi and Salman Rushdie
Mahatma Gandhi was an average man
- at least, that is how he regarded himself. He laid no claim to be either a saint or a
mahatma. He declared with humility:
"I claim to be no more than an average man with less than average ability. Nor
can I claim any special merit for such non-violence or continence as I have been able to
reach with laborious research. I have not the shadow of a doubt that any man or woman can
achieve what I have, if he or she would make the same effort and cultivate the same hope
and faith. Work without faith is like an attempt to reach the bottom of a bottomless
These words were not the expression of a pretentious modesty. They reflected Gandhi's
fundamental conviction that each one of us can achieve that which he had achieved - and
more. For Gandhi, life was a permanent experiment with truth. He walked his talk - and
where his walk did not coincide with his talk, he changed either his walk or his talk.
"I claim to be a simple individual liable to
err like any other fellow mortal. I own, however, that I have humility enough in
me to confess my errors and to retrace my steps. I own that I have an immovable
faith in God and His goodness and unconsumable passion for truth and love. But,
is that not what every person has latent in him?"
Stephen Covey, the author of the best selling
Seven Habits of Highly Effective People,
often refers to a story from Gandhi's life. The parents had brought their young child to
Gandhi. They wanted Gandhi to advise the child against eating sweets. Gandhi told the
parents to bring the child to him the next week. Seven days later, Gandhi advised the
child. The parents then inquired from Gandhi why it was that he had not advised the child
on their first visit. Gandhi replied: "I myself was eating sweets then."
That Gandhi's words are increasingly quoted by today's management gurus is a reflection
of the deep underlying truths that Gandhi had touched in his own life - deep underlying
truths which have a broad relevance to all human endeavour.
If Aurobindo was a raja yogi who openly declared his will
to see God in his lifetime, and Jiddu Krishnamurthi a jnana
yogi, to whom reality was the interval between two thoughts, then Gandhi was the karma
yogi beyond compare, engaging in action, and consciously evolving by seeking at every turn
a coincidence of word and deed.
Ahimsa and the Chakra were the twin pillars on which Gandhi founded India's bid for
or non violence was not an expression of cowardice or weakness. In a famous article
'The Doctrine of the Sword' Gandhi wrote in 1920:
"I do believe that when there is only a choice between cowardice and
violence.... I would rather have India resort to arms in order to defend her honour than
that she should in a cowardly manner become or remain a helpless victim to her own
dishonour. But I believe that non-violence is infinitely superior to violence, forgiveness
is more manly than punishment.
Forgiveness adorns a soldier. But abstinence is forgiveness only when there is power to
punish; it is meaningless when it proceeds from a helpless creature. A mouse hardly
forgives a cat when it allows itself to be torn to pieces by her... But I do not
believe India to be helpless, I do not believe myself to be a helpless creature...
Let me not be misunderstood. Strength does not come from
physical capacity. It comes from indomitable will...
I am not a visionary. I claim to be a practical idealist.
The religion of non
violence is not meant merely for rishis and saints. It is meant for the common people as
well. Non violence is the law of our species as violence is the law of the brute. The
spirit lies dormant in the brute, and he knows no law but that of physical might. The
dignity of man requires obedience to a higher law - to the strength of the spirit.
I have therefore ventured to place before India the ancient law of self sacrifice. For
satyagraha and its offshoots, non co-operation and civil resistance, are nothing but new
names for the law of suffering.
The rishis who discovered the law of non violence in the midst of violence were
greater geniuses than Newton. They were themselves greater warriors than Wellington.
Having themselves known the use of arms, they realised their uselessness and taught a
weary world that its salvation lay not through violence but through non violence.
Non violence in its dynamic condition means conscious suffering. It does not mean meek
submission to the will of the evil doer, but it means the putting of one's whole soul
against the will of the tyrant. Working under this law of our being, it is possible for a
single individual to defy the whole might of an unjust empire to save his honour, his
religion, his soul, and lay the foundation for that empire's fall or regeneration.
And so I am not pleading for India to practise non violence because it is weak. I
want her to practise non violence being conscious of her strength and power...
I want India to recognise that she has a soul that cannot perish, and that can rise
triumphant above any physical weakness and defy the physical combination of a whole world.
I isolate this non co-operation from Sinn Feinism, for it is so conceived as to be
incapable of being offered side by side with violence. But I invite even the school of
violence to give this peaceful non co-operation a trial.
It will not fail through its
inherent weakness. It may fail because of poverty of response. Then will be the time for real danger. The high souled men, who are unable to suffer
national humiliation any longer, will want to vent their wrath. They will take to
violence. So far as I know, they must perish without delivering themselves or their
country from the wrong...."
And from his early days of political activity in South
Africa, Gandhi was stubborn and unshakeable in his
commitment to that which he believed.
At a meeting of Indians in
Johannesburg on 11 September 2006, to protest against
the South African government's registration law he said:
"To pledge ourselves...in the name of God or with him as witness is not something
to be trifled with. There is wisdom in taking
serious steps with great caution and hesitation. But
caution and hesitation have their limits, which we have
now passed. The Government has taken leave of all sense
of decency. We would only be betraying our unworthiness
and cowardice, if we cannot stake our all in the face of
the conflagration which envelops us and sit watching it
with folded hands....But
every one of us must think out for himself if he has the
will and the ability to pledge himself. Resolutions of
this nature cannot be passed by a majority vote. Only
those who take a pledge can be bound by it...A
word about my personal responsibility. If I am warning
you of the risks attendant upon the pledge, I am at the
same time inviting you to pledge yourselves, and I am
fully conscious of my responsibility in the matter. It
is possible that a majority of those present here might
take the pledge in a fit of enthusiasm or indignation
but might weaken under the ordeal, and only a handful
might be left to face the final test. Even then there is
only one course open to the like of me, to die but not
to submit to the law. It is quite unlikely but even if
every one else flinched leaving me alone to face the
music, I am confident that I would never violate my
pledge. Please do not misunderstand me. I am not saying
this out of vanity, but I wish to put you, especially
the leaders upon the platform, on your guard.."
Gandhi, some years later later spelt out in his own words, the path that had led him to non-violence:
" Up to the year 1906 I simply relied on appeal to reason. I was a very industrious
reformer......But I found that reason failed to produce an impression when the critical
moment arrived in South Africa. My people were excited; even a worm will and does
sometimes turn - and there was talk of wreaking vengeance. I had then to choose between
allying myself to violence or finding out some other method of meeting the crisis and
stopping the rot; and it came to me that we should refuse to obey the legislation that was
degrading and let them put us in jail if they liked. Thus came into being the moral
equivalent of law.....
Since then the conviction has been growing upon me, that things of fundamental
importance to the people are not secured by reason alone but have to be purchased with
their suffering. Suffering is the law of human beings; war is the law of the
jungle. But suffering is infinitely more powerful than the law of the jungle for
converting the opponent and opening his ears, which are otherwise shut, to the voice of
reason.....I have come to this fundamental conclusion, that if you want something really
important to be done you must not merely satisfy the reason, you must move the heart too.
The appeal to reason is more to the head but the penetration of the heart comes from
suffering. It opens up the inner understanding in man."
If ahimsa sprang from the ageless spirituality of India, then the chakra gave the
peoples of India self worth in the 'modern' material world. Gandhi pointed to the evils of
modern day industrialism. He was reviled for looking backward and rejecting 'modernism'.
But, perhaps he was an early 'post-modern'.
The chakra, just as much as ahimsa, brought the vast masses of India into the freedom
struggle. Gandhi reached out to rural India. The chakra gave the peoples of India tangible
proof of their own capacity to satisfy their material wants. It gave them 'thanmaanam'.
They were not beggars always trying to 'catch up' with the 'modern' West. They were not a
part of the 'third' world. They were part of the 'majority' world - the post modern world
of the future, where India's spiritual heritage would make its special contribution,
especially to a developing 'First' World no longer content to regard gross national
product as the measure of 'development'.
Again, Gandhi was not an elitist who predicated social change to the transformation of
a select few. The power of the salt march to mobilise a people surprised many, including
Jawarhalal Nehru. On 31 December 1929, the Indian National Congress declared Poorna Swaraj
(complete independence) as the goal of the Indian people. On 2 March 1930, Gandhi, after
reflecting for two months, wrote to British Viceroy Lord Irwin:
"...The British system seems to be designed to
crush the very life out of the peasant. Even the salt he must use to live, is so taxed as
to make the burden fall heaviest on him. The British administration is the most expensive
in the world. Take your own salary...It is over Rs 21,000 per month. The British Prime
Minister gets Rs 5,400 per month... If India is to live as a nation, if the slow death by
starvation of her people is to stop, some remedy must be found. If my letter, makes no
appeal to your heart, I shall proceed with such co-workers of the Ashram that I can take,
to disregard the provisions of the Salt Laws."
Initially, the British Viceroy, decided to ignore the march - 'a few Indians, picking
up salt from the beaches, were not going to topple the British empire'. But as thousands
upon thousands of the peoples of India flocked to the beaches to openly breach the law,
the Viceroy concluded that there was an immense organisation behind this open defiance.
The British then set about arresting the 'organisers'. But as more and more
'organisers' were arrested and detained, the defiance increased and thousands more joined.
The truth was that the salt march succeeded not because of skilful 'organisation' - the
salt march was a 'self organising idea'. Yet again, Gandhi had dug deep and touched base
with his fellow Indians.
A story is told about Gandhi and
Bhagat Singh, a militant/revolutionary in the Indian freedom struggle. In the 1930s, Bhagat Singh
was charged and convicted for dacoity and sentenced to death. In prison, awaiting death,
Bhagat Singh declared:
" I have been arrested while waging a war. For me there can be no
gallows. Put me into the
of a cannon and blow me off."
When asked by newspaper reporters for his response, Gandhi
replied: His way is not my way. But I bow my head before one who is ready to
give his life for the freedom of his people.
Martin Luther King was one of those who was
inspired by Gandhi - and today, Gandhi continues to inspire all those concerned with
political change - change for the better, change so that the essential goodness in each
one of us may find settled expression. His legacy remains.
Mahatma Gandhi's Will dated 20
"All the wills made by me previously may be treated as cancelled and this may
be considered as my final Will.
I do not regard anything as my personal property.
Nevertheless, of whatever may be regarded in custom and in law as my
property, movable or immovable, and of the copyrights of the books and
articles, published or unpublished, written by me hitherto before or that
may be written by me hereafter, I appoint "Navajivan", of which
Shri Mohanlal Maganlal Bhatt and I made a Declaration of Trust, which was
registered on 26-11-1929, and of which Shri Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel,
Shri Mahadev Haribhai Desai and Shri Narahari Dwarkadas Parikh are the
present Trustees, as the sole heirs.
From the net profits accruing from the sale of the said books and from their
copyrights "Navajivan" shall contribute twenty-five per cent every
year to the Harijan Sevak Sangh for Harijan work. I nominate
Mahadev Haribhai Desai and Narahari Dwarkadas Parikh Executors for the
purpose of this Will. In their absence, through death or any other
reason, others will have the right to administer the property.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Malikanda, February 20, 1940
Witnesses: Pyarelal Nayyar, 20-2-40 Koshorelai G. Masiruwala,
20-2-40 From Gujarati: C.W. 2686 Courtesy: Navajivan Trust - The
Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, LXX1page 230
Probated on 9-5-1949 "
Some Gandhi Reflections...
"...What you do is of little significance,
but it is very important that you do it..."
" My goal is friendship with the world and I can
combine the greatest love with the greatest opposition to wrong..."
"...As human beings, our greatness lies not so much in being able to remake the World
– that is the myth of the atomic age - as in being able to remake ourselves...
We must become the change we seek in the world..."
என்ற முறையில், எங்கள் திறன்
உலகை மாற்றி அமைப்பதிலல்ல
தங்கியிருக்கின்றது - எங்களை
இருக்கின்றது. நாங்கள் உலகில் விரும்பும்
"My religion has no geographical limits. If I have a living faith in it, it will transcend my love for India herself. ... Isolated independence is not the goal of the world states. It is voluntary interdependence. ... There is no limit to extending our services to our neighbours across state-made frontiers. God never made those frontiers."
"I do not want my house to be walled in on all sides and my
windows to be stuffed. I want the cultures of all lands to be blown about my
house as freely as possible. But I refuse to be blown off my feet by any of
them. Mine is not a religion of the prison house. It has room for the least
among God's creatures, but is proof against the insolent pride of race,
religion or colour.."
"I live for India's freedom and would die for it, because it is part of Truth. Only a free India can worship the true God. I work for India's freedom because my swadeshi teaches me that being born in it and having inherited her culture, I am fittest to serve her and she has a prior claim to my service. But my patriotism is not exclusive; it is calculated not only not to hurt another nation but to benefit all in the true sense of the word. India's freedom as conceived by me can never be a menace to the world."
"I hold that Democracy cannot be evolved by forcible methods. The spirit of Democracy cannot be imposed from without. It has to come from within ... I believe that true Democracy can only be an outcome of Non-Violence. The structure of a world federation can be raised only on a foundation of non-violence and violence will have to be totally given up in world affairs."
"There is no religion higher than Truth and Righteousness. You mush watch my life, how I live, eat, sib, talk, behave in general. ... The sum total of all those in me is my religion. ... It is my deliberate opinion that the essential part of the teaching of the Buddha now forms an integral pars of Hinduism.
It is impossible for Hindu India today to retrace her steps and go behind the great reformation that Gautama effected in Hinduism. By his immense sacrifice, by him great renunciation and by the immaculate purity of his life he left an indelible impress upon Hinduism, and Hinduism owes an eternal debt of gratitude to that great teacher."
"What was the larger 'Symbiosis' that Buddha and Christ preached? Gentleness and love. Buddha fearlessly carried the war into the enemy's camp and brought down on its knees an arrogant priesthood. Christ drove out the money-changers from the temple of Jerusalem and drew down curses from heaven upon the hypocrites and the Pharisees. Both were for intensely direct action. But even as Buddha and Christ chastised, they showed unmistakable love and gentleness behind every act of theirs."
"In every great cause it is not the number of fighters that counts but it is the quality of which they are made that becomes the deciding factor. The greatest men of the world have always stood alone. Take the great prophets, Zoroaster, Buddha, Jesus, Mohamed-they all stood alone like many others whom I can name. But they had living faith in themselves and their God, and believing as they did that God was on their side, they never felt lonely."
"..The means can be likened to a seed, the end to a tree, and there is just the same inviolable connection between the means and the end as there is between the seed and the tree.
They say: “Means are, after all, just means.” I would say: “Means are, after all, everything.” As the means, so the end.........If we take care of the means, we are bound to reach the end sooner or later..."
“In its negative form, non violence means not injuring any living being whether by body or mind. I may not therefore hurt the person of any wrong-doer, or bear any ill will to him and so cause him mental suffering….
In its positive form, non violence means the largest love, the greatest charity. If I am a follower of non violence, I must love my enemy. I must apply the same rule to wrong-doer who is my enemy or a stranger to me, as I would do to my wrong-doing father or son. This active non violence necessarily includes Truth and Fearlessness….
A man cannot then practice non violence and be a coward at the same time. The practice of non-violence
calls forth the greatest courage."
"Nonviolence is the law of our species as violence
is the law of the brute. The spirit lies dormant
in the brute, and he knows no law but that of physical might. The
dignity of man requires obedience to a higher law - to the strength of
the spirit.. The best and most lasting self-defense is
"There is no reason to believe that there is one law for families and another
When I despair, I remember that all through history the way of truth and love
has always won. There have been tyrants and murderers and for a time they seem
invincible, but in the end, they always fall - think of it, always. Exploitation
and domination of one nation over another can have no place in a world striving
to put an end to all war.
An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind.
Peace will not come out of a clash of arms, but out of justice lived, and done,
by unarmed nations in the face of odds. "Tit for tat" is the law of the brute of
unregenerate man. To answer brutality with brutality is to admit one's moral and
It is easy enough to be friendly to one's friends. But to be friends to the one
who regards himself as your enemy is the quintessence of true religion. The
other is mere business.
Hatred can be overcome only by love. Whenever you are confronted with an
opponent, conquer him with love. Whenever you have truth it must be given with
love, or the message and the messenger will be rejected.
Civil disobedience becomes a sacred duty when the state becomes lawless or
corrupt. Noncooperation with evil is as much a duty as cooperation with good.
In true democracy every man and woman is taught to think for himself or herself.
Democracy is not a state in which people act like sheep.
Nonviolence is the first article of my faith, it is also the last article of my
creed. Nonviolence is not a weapon of the weak. It is a weapon of the strongest
and bravest. Truth and nonviolence demand that no human being may debar himself
from serving any other human being, no matter how sinful he may be.
My patriotism is not an exclusive thing. It is all embracing and I should reject
that patriotism which sought to mount the distress, or exploitation, of other
nationalities. Hatred is not essential for nationalism. Race-hatred will kill
the real national spirit.
The earth provides enough to satisfy every man's needs, but not every man's
A "No" uttered from deepest conviction is better and greater than a "Yes" merely
uttered to please, or what is worse, to avoid trouble.
Practice is the best speech and the best propaganda.
There are times when you have to obey a call which is the highest of all, i.e. -
the voice of conscience, even though such obedience may cost many a bitter tear,
and even more a separation from friends, from family, from the state to which
you may belong, from all which you have held as dear as life itself. For this
obedience is the law of our being.
The only devils in the world are those running around in our own hearts - that
is where the battle should be fought.
"In the midst of death, life persists; in the midst of
untruth, truth persists; in the midst of darkness, light persists; hence I
gather that God is life, truth and light.."
As Others saw Gandhi..
1930 "...It is alarming and also nauseating to see
Mr. Gandhi, a seditious middle temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir of a type
well known in the east, striding half-naked up the steps of the viceregal
palace, while he is still organizing and conducting a defiant campaign of
civil disobedience, to parley on equal
terms with the representative of the king-emperor..."
Albert Schweitzer -
"Gandhi continues what the Buddha began. In the Buddha the spirit of love
set itself the task of creating different spiritual conditions in the world; in Gandhi it undertakes to transform all worldly conditions."
Jawaharlal Nehru, 1948 "The light has gone out of our lives and there is darkness
everywhere and I do not quite know what to tell you and how to say it. The
light has gone out, I said and yet I was wrong, for the light that shone in
this country, for these many years will illumine this country for many more
years and a thousand years later that light will stiil be seen in this
country, and world will see it and it will give solace to innmerable hearts.
For that light represented the living truth and the eternal man was with us
with his eternal truth reminding us of the right path, drawing us from error,
taking this ancient country to freedom" -
Rabindranath Tagore - "This then seems to me to be the significant fact about Gandhiji. Great as he is as a politician, as an
organiser, am a leader of men, as a moral reformer, he is greater than all these as a man, because none of these aspects and activities limits his humanity. They are rather inspired and sustained by it. Though an incorrigible idealist and given to referring all conduct to certain pet formula of his own, he is essentially a lover of men and not of mere ideas; which makes him so
cautious and conservative in his revolutionary schemes. If he proposes an experiment for society, he must first subject himself to its ordeal.
If he calls for a sacrifice, he must first pay its price himself."-
the Missing Laureate by Øyvind Tønnesson
"The Times, on September 27,
1947, under the headline "Mr. Gandhi on 'war' with Pakistan" reported: "Mr.
Gandhi told his prayer meeting to-night that, though he had always opposed all
warfare, if there was no other way of securing justice from Pakistan and if
Pakistan persistently refused to see its proved error and continued to minimise
it, the Indian Union Government would have to go to war against it. No one
wanted war, but he could never advise anyone to put up with
all Hindus were annihilated for a just cause he would not mind. If there was
war, the Hindus in Pakistan could not be fifth columnists. If their loyalty lay
not with Pakistan they should leave it. Similarly Muslims whose loyalty was with
Pakistan should not stay in the Indian Union. Gandhi had immediately stated
that the report was correct, but incomplete. At the meeting he had added
that he himself had not changed his mind and that "he had no place in a new
order where they wanted an army, a navy, an air force and what not"...
Jahn (Nobel Peace Committee Chairman, 1947) in his diary quoted himself as
saying: "While it is true that he (Gandhi) is the greatest personality among the
nominees – plenty of good things could be said about him – we should remember
that he is not only an apostle for peace; he is first and foremost a patriot.
(...) Moreover, we have to bear in mind that Gandhi is not naive. He
is an excellent jurist and a lawyer.""