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Home > Human Rights & Humanitarian Law > Armed Conflict & the Law > What is Terrorism?  > United Kingdom & Terrorism >  LTTE included in Draft Order of Organisations to be Proscribed under UK Terrorism Act 2000 > United Kingdom & the Struggle for Tamil Eelam

LTTE included in Draft Order of Organisations
to be Proscribed under UK Terrorism Act 2000

[see also:  (1) British Parliament approves proscription of LTTE 
and (2)  UK Terrorism Act 2000]


Home Office News Release, 28 February 2001
From the UK Home Office Explanatory Note to Draft Order: 
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)


Aims: The LTTE is a terrorist group fighting for a separate Tamil state in the North and East of Sri Lanka.

History: The LTTE has been fighting since 1983. More than 60,000 people on all sides have been killed in the conflict.

Attacks: The LTTE has mounted both a military assault and a terrorist campaign, the latter mainly in Colombo. Attacks are mostly targeted against Sri Lankan military and leading politicians using suicide bombers. Attempts to assassinate the Sri Lankan President in late 1999 and early 2000 were attributed to the LTTE by the media and the Sri Lankan authorities.

Attacks on UK or Western interests: The LTTE has never targeted Western interests directly, though Westerners have been injured as a result of LTTE attacks in Sri Lanka. The LTTE's only attack outside Sri Lanka was the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in 1991 in response to India's military support for Sri Lanka.

Representation/activities in the UK: The LTTE's International Secretariat is based in the UK, and is responsible for the group's press releases. The UK is also a source of funds for the LTTE.

A total of 21 international organisations, recommended for proscription under the new Terrorism Act 2000, are listed in a draft Order laid before Parliament today by the Home Secretary Jack Straw. The draft Order will be subject to debates in and approval by both Houses of Parliament. Specific offences relating to membership, support for and funding of a proscribed organisation are included in the Act.

Mr Straw said: "The Terrorism Act is important legislation which brings our provisions into line with the European Convention for Human Rights and ensures that we are better able to deal with the serious threats which terrorism poses. Taking account of police, security and legal advice, I have given careful consideration to which organisations should be recommended for proscription. I believe that this action is both fair and proportionate to the threat that is found, both in this country and abroad. Once proscription of these organisations takes effect, it will be open to any of the terrorist organisations concerned - or any person affected by their proscription - to make an application to me as the Home Secretary, for deproscription. If that application is refused, the organisation can then appeal to a new independent tribunal, the Proscribed Organisations Appeal Commission. This procedure also applies to those Irish terrorist organisations listed in Schedule 2 of the Act.
Proscription is an important power in the new Act - the UK has no intention of becoming a base for terrorists and their supporters, nor to see it flourish abroad, and we will take every legal action at our disposal to prevent this."


Notes for Editors issued by the Home Office:

1. Under Part II of the Terrorism Act 2000, the Secretary of State has the power to proscribe any organisation which he believes 'is concerned in terrorism'. An organisation is 'concerned in terrorism' if it commits or participates in acts of terrorism, prepares for terrorism, promotes or encourages terrorism, or is otherwise concerned in terrorism either in the UK or abroad. 'Organisation' is defined as including 'any association or combination of persons'. Once the statutory criteria are satisfied, the Secretary of State then has discretion whether or not to proscribe a particular organisation.

2. In reaching his decisions, the Home Secretary also took into account a number of factors including:

· The nature and scale of an organisation's activities;

· The specific threat that it poses to the UK

· The specific threat that it poses to British nationals overseas

· The extent of the organisation's presence in the UK

· The need to support other members of the international community in the global fight against terrorism.

3. The list of Irish related organisations already proscribed in Schedule 2 of the Act is unamended by the Order.

4. Proscribed organisations can at any time make an application to the Secretary of State for deproscription. Should an application be unsuccessful, the organisation or any person affected by their proscription can then appeal to the Proscribed Organisations Appeal Commission (POAC), set up under section 5 and Schedule 3 of the Terrorism Act 2000.


Answer by Secretary of State for Home Affairs to Written Question in Parliament, 28 February 2001

E.R Wednesday, 28 February 2001, Written No 11


Mr Chris Pond (Gravesham): To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department, what additional terrorist organisations he intends to proscribe, following the coming into force of the Terrorism Act 2000

Mr Straw:

I have today laid a draft Order, under section 123(4)(a) of the Terrorism Act, recommending to Parliament that the following organisations be added to the list of proscribed organisations in Schedule 2 to the Act:

- Al-Qa'ida
- Egyptian Islamic Jihad
- Al-Gama'at al-Islamiya
- Armed Islamic Group (Groupe Islamique Armée) (GIA)
- Salafist Group for Call and Combat (Groupe Salafiste pour la Prédication et le Combat) (GSPC)
- Babbar Khalsa
- International Sikh Youth Federation
- Harakat Mujahideen
- Jaish e Mohammed
- Lashkar e Tayyaba
- Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)
- Hizballah External Security Organisation
- Hamas-Izz al-Din al-Qassem Brigades
- Palestinian Islamic Jihad - Shaqaqi
- Abu Nidal Organisation
- Islamic Army of Aden
- Mujaheddin e Khalq
- Kurdistan Workers' Party (Partiya Karkeren Kurdistan) (PKK)
- Revolutionary Peoples' Liberation Party - Front (Devrimci Halk Kurtulus Partisi - Cephesi) (DHKP-C)
- Basque Homeland and Liberty (Euskadi ta Askatasuna) (ETA)
- 17 November Revolutionary Organisation (N17)

Under section 3(3)(a) of the Act, I may by order add an organisation to Schedule 2, where I believe that it is concerned in terrorism, as defined in section 1 of the Act. I am entirely satisfied that the organisations named above are "concerned in terrorism" as set out in section 3(5) of the Act, and have, after careful consideration, decided to exercise my discretion to proscribe them. The draft Order is subject to the affirmative resolution procedure. There will therefore be a debate in both Houses on my recommendations. If approved by Parliament, the proscriptions will take effect on the day after I sign the Order. To assist consideration by both Houses, I have placed in the Libraries, the Vote Office, and the Printed Paper Office, copies of a Note setting out a brief summary in respect of each organisation named in the draft Order.

The Act provides for an appeal process. After the Order comes into force, it will be open for any of the organisations so proscribed, or any person affected by their proscription, to make application to me for deproscription. If that application is refused, the Act provides for an appeal to a new independent tribunal, the Proscribed Organisations Appeal Commission, established by the Terrorism Act.


Draft Order laid before Parliament under section 123(4)(a) of the Terrorism Act 2000, for approval by resolution of each House of Parliament

Draft STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS

2001 No.  Prevention and Suppression of Terrorism
Terrorism Act 2000 (Proscribed Organisations) (Amendment) Order 2001

Made - - - - 2001 Coming into force - - 2001

Whereas the Secretary of State believes that the organisations set out in article 2 of the following Order are concerned in terrorism;

Now, therefore, the Secretary of State, in exercise of the power conferred upon him by section 3(3)(a) of the Terrorism Act 2000 (2000 c.11 by virtue of section 3(4), the power in section 3(3)(a) may be exercised only in respect of organisations that the Secretary of State believes to be concerned in terrorism.), hereby makes the following Order:

Citation and commencement
1. This Order may be cited as the Terrorism Act 2000 (Proscribed Organisations) (Amendment) Order 2001 and shall come into force on the day after the day on which it is made.

Proscribed organisations
2. The following organisations are hereby added to Schedule 2 to the Terrorism Act 2000.

- Al-Qa'ida
- Egyptian Islamic Jihad
- Al-Gama'at al-Islamiya
- Armed Islamic Group (Groupe Islamique Armée) (GIA)
- Salafist Group for Call and Combat (Groupe Salafiste pour la Prédication et le Combat) (GSPC)
- Babbar Khalsa
- International Sikh Youth Federation
- Harakat Mujahideen
- Jaish e Mohammed
- Lashkar e Tayyaba
- Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)
- Hizballah External Security Organisation
- Hamas-Izz al-Din al-Qassem Brigades
- Palestinian Islamic Jihad - Shaqaqi
- Abu Nidal Organisation
- Islamic Army of Aden
- Mujaheddin e Khalq
- Kurdistan Workers' Party (Partiya Karkeren Kurdistan) (PKK)
- Revolutionary Peoples' Liberation Party - Front (Devrimci Halk Kurtulus Partisi - Cephesi) (DHKP-C)
- Basque Homeland and Liberty (Euskadi ta Askatasuna) (ETA)
- 17 November Revolutionary Organisation (N17)

One of Her Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State
Home Office
2001


Explanatory Note to Order

EXPLANATORY NOTE
(This note is not part of the Order)

This Order adds the organisations listed in article 2 of the Order to the list of proscribed organisations in Schedule 2 to the Terrorism Act 2000.

TERRORISM ACT 2000 (PROSCRIBED ORGANISATIONS)
(AMENDMENT) ORDER 2001

Note on international terrorist organisations recommended for inclusion in Schedule 2 (Proscribed Organisations) to the Terrorism Act 2000

28 February 2001

List of international terrorist organisations recommended for inclusion in Schedule 2 (Proscribed Organisations) to the Terrorism Act 2000
- Al-Qa'ida
- Egyptian Islamic Jihad
- Al-Gama'at al-Islamiya
- Armed Islamic Group (Groupe Islamique Armée) (GIA)
- Salafist Group for Call and Combat (Groupe Salafiste pour la Prédication et le Combat) (GSPC)
- Babbar Khalsa
- International Sikh Youth Federation
- Harakat Mujahideen
- Jaish e Mohammed
- Lashkar e Tayyaba
- Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)
- Hizballah External Security Organisation
- Hamas-Izz al-Din al-Qassem Brigades
- Palestinian Islamic Jihad - Shaqaqi
- Abu Nidal Organisation
- Islamic Army of Aden
- Mujaheddin e Khalq
- Kurdistan Workers' Party (Partiya Karkeren Kurdistan) (PKK)
- Revolutionary Peoples' Liberation Party - Front (Devrimci Halk Kurtulus Partisi - Cephesi) (DHKP-C)
- Basque Homeland and Liberty (Euskadi ta Askatasuna) (ETA)
- 17 November Revolutionary Organisation (N17)


Al-Qa'ida

Aims: Its aims are the expulsion of Western forces from Saudi Arabia, the destruction of Israel and the end of Western influence in the Muslim world.

History: A network or loose organisation of individuals based in Afghanistan and formed after the Soviet-Afghan war. It is inspired and led by Usama Bin Laden.

Attacks: In August 1996 the group issued a fatwa to the effect that efforts should be pooled worldwide to kill US nationals (sometimes known as global Jihad). In February 1998, Al-Qa'ida, with other terrorist groups under the title 'World Islamic Front', declared that Muslims should kill Americans and their allies, civilian and military, anywhere in the world. On 7 August 1998 bomb attacks aimed at the US Embassies in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam killed over 200 people and injured around 4000 others. Seventeen people have been charged in the United States with offences relating to the bombings, some of whom are alleged to be members of Al-Qa'ida. Information linking the group to other incidents is less certain but Al-Qa'ida has been associated with the killing of 19 US marines in Somalia in 1993 and the attack on the World Trade Centre in New York as well as attacks in the Middle East.

Representation/Activities in the UK: The group has not made any attacks in the UK. Some individuals from the UK have trained with Al-Qa'ida in camps in Afghanistan but there is no overt representation in the UK. Khalid Al Fawwaz, alleged to be a member of Al-Qa'ida, is currently in custody in the UK pending determination of an extradition request by the US concerning his alleged involvement in the East Africa bombings in 1998.


Egyptian Islamic Jihad

Aims: The main aim of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ) is to overthrow the Egyptian Government and replace it with an Islamic state. However, since September 1998, the leadership of the group has also allied itself to the 'global Jihad' ideology expounded by Usama Bin Laden and has threatened Western interests.

History: The EIJ was established in 1973, by individuals who believed in the use of violence in order to achieve their aims of overthrowing the Egyptian Government.

Attacks: The EIJ has mounted a number of high profile terrorist attacks in the last twenty years including the assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat in 1981. The group was also reported to be responsible for the assassination of the Deputy Speaker of the Egyptian Parliament in 1990 and for the car bomb attack on the Egyptian Embassy in Islamabad in 1995, which caused 15 deaths. In addition members of the EIJ were involved in the bombing of the US Embassies in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi in August 1998.

Attacks on UK or Western interests: While the UK has not been directly targeted to date, UK interests have suffered collateral damage from EIJ attacks. The British High Commission residential compound, adjacent to the Egyptian Embassy in Islamabad, suffered extensive collateral damage as a result of the 1995 car bomb attack. The EIJ alliance with Usama Bin Laden indicates that British interests, along with other Western interests, are likely to be targeted in the future.

Representation/activities in the UK: The EIJ has members in the UK though there is no overt representation. Two senior members of the group are currently in custody in the UK pending determination of an extradition request by the US concerning their alleged involvement in the East Africa bombings.


Al-Gama'at al-Islamiya

Aims: The main aim of al-Gama'at al-Islamiya (GI) is through all means, including the use of violence, to overthrow the Egyptian Government and replace it with an Islamic state. Some members also want the removal of Western influence from the Arab world.

History: The GI was established in the early 1980s when it split from the EIJ. Since then, it has focused its campaign of insurgence inside Egypt, carrying out countless attacks against Egyptian government and military targets, and since 1992 against tourists. In March 1999 the GI declared a ceasefire. So far they have adhered to it but there are factions within the group who have publicly advocated a return to violence.

Attacks: The GI has carried out numerous attacks against Egyptian government and military targets, including the 1989 attempted assassination of the Egyptian Interior Minister Zaki Badr. From 1992, it has also actively targeted tourist interests in Egypt, in an attempt to discredit the government and damage the economy. Attacks have included the massacre in Luxor on 17 November 1997. Six assailants attacked tourists, killing 62 people; 58 were tourists, 6 of whom were Britons.

Attacks on UK or Western interests: The GI has not directly targeted British interests. However, its campaign in Egypt has resulted in the deaths of British citizens and threatened collateral damage. While the group is not formally allied with Usama Bin Laden, close links remain and a number within the group favour his policy of directly targeting Western interests.

Representation/activities in the UK: The GI has members in the UK but no overt representation and there is no evidence of current terrorist planning by the group in the UK.


Armed Islamic Group (Groupe Islamique Armée) (GIA)

Aims: The aim of the GIA is to create an Islamic state in Algeria using all necessary means, including violence.

History: Since its emergence in 1992, the GIA has been responsible for a large number of the civilian deaths by terrorist action in Algeria. In September 1998, the leader of the GIA issued a communiqué which condoned killing women and children. Since then, many supporters of this group in the UK have switched their allegiance from the GIA to the Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC - see following).

Attacks: The first GIA attack in Europe took place in 1994, when members of the GIA hijacked an Air France aircraft. In 1995 there was an upsurge in GIA activity within Europe which included a number of bomb attacks in Paris, specifically targeting the Metro. Whilst these were the last attacks to be claimed by the GIA, in May 1998 a small explosive device which had similarities to those used in the 1995 attacks was discovered in Paris.

Representation/activities in the UK: The GIA has had members in the UK although some have now joined the GSPC. The group has no overt representation here. Its UK members have provided logistical support for GIA members in Algeria. These activities have included collecting funds and procuring chemicals used in making explosives.


Salafist Group for Call and Combat (Groupe Salafiste pour la Predication et le Combat) (GSPC)

Aims: To create an Islamic state in Algeria using all necessary means, including violence.

History: (See also GIA) In September 1998, the leader of the GIA issued a communiqué which condoned killing women and children. Since then, many Algerian extremists in the UK have switched their allegiance from the GIA to the GSPC. The group was also known as the Hassan Hattab (HH) faction of the GIA.

Attacks: In March 1998, several individuals assessed to have been members the GSPC were arrested in Brussels. The Belgian authorities believed that these individuals were planning an attack against the World Cup Football Tournament in France. In July 2000, the GSPC issued a communiqué which warned French authorities against abusing prisoners sympathetic to the group.

Representation/activities in the UK: The GSPC has members in the UK but no overt representation. Its UK members have provided logistical support for members of the group in Algeria.


International Sikh Youth Federation

Aims: The International Sikh Youth Federation (ISYF) is an organisation committed to the creation of an independent state of Khalistan for Sikhs within India.

History: The ISYF was established in the 1980s, and its terrorist activities have continued since then.

Attacks: ISYF attacks have included assassinations, bombings and kidnappings, mainly directed against Indian officials and Indian interests. The Special Immigration Appeals Committee (SIAC) found in July 2000 that two ISYF members (MUKHTIAR and PARAMJIT Singh), were a threat to UK national security (although for other reasons they declined to confirm deportation orders against them).

Attacks on UK or Western interests: ISYF and its associated factions have never targeted Western interests. There remains a threat of collateral damage from attacks against Indian officials visiting the UK.

Representation/activities in the UK: ISYF support is spread across the UK and provides a base for fundraising. As the case of MUKHTIAR and PARAMJIT Singh demonstrated, there is also evidence that UK based extremists involve themselves in terrorist support activity.


Babbar Khalsa

Aims: Babbar Khalsa (BK) is a Sikh movement which aims to establish an independent Khalistan within the Punjab region of India.

History: BK was established in 1978 and numerous terrorist attacks have since been attributed to the group.

Attacks: Avowed attacks include the murder of Beant Singh, the Chief Minister of the Punjab, in 1995. Two BK members have recently been arrested in Canada for the bombing of Air India flight 182 in 1985 which killed 329 people. A UK based member of BK (Balbir Singh BAINS) was also arrested in India in 1999 on terrorist charges.

Attacks on UK or Western interests: BK has never targeted Western interests. There remains however a collateral threat, particularly from attacks against Indian officials visiting the UK.

Representation/activities in the UK: BK has had representation in the UK since the 1980s. BK uses the UK as a base for fundraising, recruitment and co-ordination of activists in the Indian sub continent. Some members have been willing to travel to India to participate in terrorist attacks.


Harakat Mujahideen

Aims: Harakat Mujahideen (HM), previously known as Harakat Ul Ansar (HuA), seeks independence for Indian administered Kashmir. The HM leadership was also a signatory to Usama Bin Laden's 1998 fatwa, which called for world wide attacks against US and Western interests.

History: HuA was established in 1993 and has since carried out a number of terrorist attacks against Indian and Western interests.

Attacks: HM/HuA is believed to be responsible for the kidnapping of Western tourists in Delhi and Kashmir in 1994 and 1995. British nationals were amongst those missing and their whereabouts remain unknown. HM has also claimed responsibility for a number of bombing campaigns within India. Media reports indicate that HM was responsible for the hijack of an Indian Airlines flight, in December 1999, which led to the release of several militants by the Indian government to secure the release of the passengers.

Representation/activities in the UK: HM has supporters in several areas of the UK.


Jaish e Mohammed

Aims: Jaish e Mohammed (JeM) seeks the 'liberation' of Kashmir from Indian control as well as the 'destruction' of America and India. JeM has a stated objective of unifying the various Kashmiri militant groups.

History: JeM was established in 2000 by Masud Azhar who remains its leader. The group was formed following Azhar's release from prison in India in response to demands by the hijackers of the Indian Airlines flight in December 1999.

Attacks: JeM carried out a number of terrorist attacks against Indian interests during 2000. It claimed responsibility for a grenade attack in May against Indian government buildings in Kashmir.

Attacks on UK or Western interests: The group has not as yet attacked UK or Western interests.

Representation/activities in the UK: There are indications that JeM is gaining support among militant Kashmiri separatists and that it has a number of supporters in the UK.


Lashkar e Tayyaba

Aims: Lashkar e Tayyaba (LT) seeks independence for Kashmir and the creation of an Islamic state using violent means.

History: LT has a long history of mounting attacks against the Indian Security Forces in Kashmir. These attacks include the use of suicide squads. An LT leader declared a 'Jihad' against American interests in 1998 following the US air strikes on Afghanistan.

Attacks: LT has been blamed for the massacre of 35 Sikhs in Jammu and Kashmir in March 2000. More recently it launched attacks on Srinagar airport and the Red Fort New Delhi. Several people were killed in these attacks.

Attacks on UK or Western interests: An LT leader recently made a public declaration that he wished to expand the conflict with India beyond Kashmir.

Representation/activities in the UK: LT in the UK is mainly represented by Markaz Dawa al Irshad, its political wing.


Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)

Aims: The LTTE is a terrorist group fighting for a separate Tamil state in the North and East of Sri Lanka.

History: The LTTE has been fighting since 1983. More than 60,000 people on all sides have been killed in the conflict.

Attacks: The LTTE has mounted both a military assault and a terrorist campaign, the latter mainly in Colombo. Attacks are mostly targeted against Sri Lankan military and leading politicians using suicide bombers. Attempts to assassinate the Sri Lankan President in late 1999 and early 2000 were attributed to the LTTE by the media and the Sri Lankan authorities.

Attacks on UK or Western interests: The LTTE has never targeted Western interests directly, though Westerners have been injured as a result of LTTE attacks in Sri Lanka. The LTTE's only attack outside Sri Lanka was the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in 1991 in response to India's military support for Sri Lanka.

Representation/activities in the UK: The LTTE's International Secretariat is based in the UK, and is responsible for the group's press releases. The UK is also a source of funds for the LTTE.


Hizballah External Security Organisation

Aims: Hizballah is committed to armed resistance to the state of Israel itself and aims to liberate all Palestinian territories and Jerusalem from Israeli occupation. It maintains a terrorist wing, the External Security Organisation (ESO), to help it achieve this.

History: Hizballah was formed in 1982 to resist the Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon. In the last 18 years it has grown from a simple militia to a wide-ranging organisation providing welfare to Lebanese Shia Muslims and having political representation in the Lebanese Assembly. Hizballah has distinct military and terrorist wings. The military wing has engaged the Israeli Defence Force (IDF) and the South Lebanon Army (SLA) in guerrilla warfare in south Lebanon.
Attacks: The terrorist wing, the ESO (also known as Islamic Jihad) has been responsible for car bombing, hijacking and kidnapping Western and Israeli/Jewish targets in Israel, Western Europe and South America.

Attacks on UK or Western interests: Between 1983 and 1984 ESO targeted Western interests, bombing the US Embassy, Beirut (78 killed); the US Marine Barracks, Beirut (241 killed); the French Army Barracks, Beirut (56 killed); the US Embassy, Kuwait; and the US Embassy Annex, Beirut (23 killed). In 1992 and 1994 ESO targeted Israeli interests, bombing the Israeli Embassy, Buenos Aires (29 killed) and the AMIA Building, Buenos Aires (over 100 killed). Between 1984 and 1988 ESO hijacked four aircraft resulting in the deaths of three people. Between 1985 and 1989 ESO held captive citizens from the US, France and the UK, including John McCarthy, Brian Keenan, Terry Waite and Jackie Mann. ESO is believed to have been instrumental in the kidnapping in December 2000 of the Israeli businessman Elhanan Tanenbaum and of Israeli soldiers from the Shaba farms region of Southern Lebanon/Syria .

Representation/activities in the UK: There is a small, overt Hizballah presence in the UK with extensive links to Hizballah's Foreign Relations Department (FRD), which is distinct from the ESO. There is some indication of occasional ESO activity in the UK.


Hamas Izz al-Din al-Qassem Brigades

Aims: Hamas aims to end Israeli occupation of Palestine and establish an Islamic state.

History: Hamas, the Palestinian Islamic Resistance Movement, emerged during the second Intifada during the early 1980s. It was founded by Sheik Ahmad Yassin, who became the Hamas spiritual leader in the mid 1980s. Hamas is a cohesive organisation split into two wings. The internal leadership is based in Gaza and the West Bank: the Political Bureau, or external leadership, which was formerly based in Jordan, now conducts its activities largely from Damascus. The Hamas terrorist apparatus is separate from the overt organisation which operates a large welfare infrastructure in the Middle East, running charitable, health and educational projects. The terrorist apparatus operates under the name the Izz al- Din al-Qassem (IDQ) Brigades.

Attacks: The first Hamas IDQ terrorist attacks were undertaken in 1988 and included the kidnapping, stabbing and shooting of Israeli civilians and military personnel. Hamas terrorist activity continued at this level until 1994. In February of that year, a Jewish settler in the Occupied Territories killed 29 Palestinians in the Mosque of Abraham in Hebron. This became known as the Hebron massacre and heralded an increase in violence by Hamas IDQ. Between 1994 and 1996, Hamas IDQ undertook a number of indiscriminate suicide bomb attacks on Israeli public transport and shopping centres. Hamas IDQ terrorist attacks have decreased since the late 1990s. However, the organisation remains in existence and has the capability to resume terrorist activities.

Attacks on UK or Western interests: Hamas IDQ has not directly attacked UK or Western interests.

Representation/activities in the UK: Hamas IDQ has not operated outside Israel and the Occupied Territories and has no overt representation in the UK. Hamas's political wing is represented by charitable organisations which raise and remit funds for welfare purposes.


Palestinian Islamic Jihad - Shaqaqi

Aims: Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) is a Shi'a group which aims to end the Israeli occupation of Palestine and create an Islamic state similar to that in Iran. It opposes the existence of the state of Israel, the Middle East Peace Process and the Palestinian Authority.

History: PIJ is a loose coalition of Palestinian Islamic fundamentalist groups formed in the 1970s as a resistance movement following the Israeli occupation of Palestinian lands. It operates within Israel and the Occupied Territories and has fought the Israelis in South Lebanon. Its leadership is based in Damascus. It has close relations with Hizballah and weaker ties with Hamas.

Attacks: PIJ has carried out suicide bombings against Israeli targets in the West Bank, Gaza, and Israel. These include a suicide bomb attack at a bus stop in Netanya, Israel, in January 1995, and a car bomb attack in West Jerusalem in 1998. 21 people were killed in the first attack and 20 wounded in the second. In November 2000 PIJ claimed responsibility for a car bomb attack in Jerusalem in which 2 Israelis died and 10 were injured. Since the end of September 2000 PIJ activity has increased with a number of attacks against Israeli forces.

Attacks on UK or Western interests: PIJ has not acted outside the Middle East and has not targeted UK or Western interests. However, PIJ has threatened to target the US embassy and its personnel if it moves from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.

Representation/activities in the UK: There is no overt PIJ presence in the UK. There are some individuals in the UK who may maintain links with the group. 



Abu Nidal Organisation

Aims: The principal aim of the Abu Nidal Organisation (ANO) is the destruction of the state of Israel. It is also hostile to "reactionary" Arab regimes and states supporting Israel.

History: Fatah - The Revolutionary Council was formed in Iraq in 1974 as a break-away faction of Fatah. It took its popular name, the Abu Nidal Organisation, from the nom de guerre of its founder, Sabri al-Banna. It has opposed all efforts at political reconciliation of the Arab-Israeli conflict and attacked other Palestinian organisations and Arab states which have moderated their opposition to Israel. ANO moved its headquarters to Syria in 1983 and then to Libya in 1987. The Libyan regime effectively ceased sponsorship of ANO in the late 1990s, all ANO personnel were expelled and offices and training facilities were shut. In recent years, though the organisation has not forsworn violence, it has been seriously weakened by internal factionalism and the ill health of al-Banna.

Attacks: ANO mounted an intensive terrorist campaign between 1974 and 1988 against Israeli and Jewish targets in Europe and the Middle East, "reactionary" Arab regimes, other Palestinian groups, and nations holding ANO operatives in prison. The attacks were ferocious and indiscriminate, and included attacks on airports and public gathering places, aircraft hijacking, bombings, assassinations and kidnaps. Since 1974, ANO has claimed responsibility for over 90 attacks in 20 countries which have killed or injured almost 900 people.

Attacks on UK or Western interests: Many ANO attacks have been on UK or Western interests including,

1974 Egypt Hijack of BA VC10
1982 London Attempted assassination of Israeli Ambassador
1984 Amman Assassination of British Cultural Attaché
1984 Beirut Kidnap of British journalist Jonathan Wright
1984 Bombay Assassination of British deputy High Commissioner
1985 Beirut Kidnap of British journalist Alec Collett
1985 Madrid Fatal bomb attack on British Airways office
1985 Rome Fatal attack at airport
1988 Khartoum Fatal attack on hotel and British club

Representation/activities in the UK: Various members of the Palestinian community in the UK have historical allegiance to the ANO but there are no known active members in the UK. Two ANO prisoners are serving terms of imprisonment in the UK.


Islamic Army of Aden

Aims: The Islamic Army of Aden's (IAA) aims are the overthrow of the current Yemeni government and the establishment of an Islamic State following Sharia Law.

History: Some press reporting indicates that the Islamic Army of Aden (IAA) was formed in 1992 (although other reports suggests that it did not take its current form until 1996). During the civil war of 1994, the group fought on the side of the current Yemeni government to overthrow the Yemeni Socialist Party. Later the group opposed the regime and was involved in skirmishes with security forces in the Abyan area in the south west of Yemen.

Attacks: On 23 December 1998, six extremists - including five UK nationals - were arrested by the Yemeni authorities. The Yemenis claimed that the group had links to the IAA and were planning to attack a number of Western targets in the Yemen. On 28 December 1998, six western tourists were taken hostage by a group of armed IAA activists. The IAA then demanded the release of a number of terrorists in Yemeni jails, including the six who had recently been arrested. In an operation to free the hostages by the Yemeni authorities, four of the hostages were killed - three British and one Australian. Three terrorists were also killed and others were captured.

Representation/Activities in the UK: The IAA has no known direct presence in the UK, although a number of individuals have expressed support for the organisation.


Mujaheddin e Khalq

Aims: The Mujaheddin e Khalq (MeK) is an Iranian dissident organisation based in Iraq. It claims to be seeking the establishment of a democratic, socialist, Islamic republic in Iran.

History: The MeK fought alongside the supporters of Ayatollah Khomenei to overthrow the Shah of Iran, but after the revolution it broke away from Khomenei and became the main opposition to the regime. It was exiled in 1981, moving to Iraq where it now maintains a standing army of several thousand fighters, supported and armed by the Iraqi regime. The MeK also has offices abroad which raise money, produce and distribute propaganda material, and stage demonstrations.

Attacks: The MeK undertakes cross-border attacks into Iran, including terrorist attacks. It has assassinated senior Iranian officials and launched mortar attacks against government buildings in Teheran and elsewhere. In June 2000 the Iranian government claimed to have foiled an MeK plot to assassinate the former Iranian foreign minister, Ali Akbar Velayati.

Attacks on UK or Western interests: The MeK has not attacked UK or Western interests.

Representation/activities in the UK: There is no acknowledged MeK presence in the UK, although its publication MOJAHED is in circulation here. The National Council for Resistance in Iran undertakes fund-raising in support of the MeK, demonstrates, and produces and distributes anti-regime propaganda in support of MeK objectives.


Kurdistan Workers' Party (Partiya Karkeren Kurdistan) (PKK)

Aims: The PKK is primarily a separatist movement which has sought an independent Kurdish state in south east Turkey.

History: The PKK was formed in 1978 by Abdullah Ocalan. Although active from 1978 it was not until the formation of the group's military wing in 1984 that it became a significant terrorist threat. In February 1999 the PKK's founder and leader Abdullah Ocalan was captured by Turkish security forces in Kenya. During his subsequent trial in Turkey, in June 1999, Ocalan announced a PKK ceasefire and also that the group intended to seek a peaceful resolution to its aspirations. However, although the group is not believed to have undertaken any offensive action since the ceasefire began on 29 August 1999, previous PKK ceasefires have broken down.

Attacks: Since 1984 the PKK has been engaged predominately in a guerrilla campaign in south east Turkey which has resulted in a death toll on all sides estimated to be in excess of 33,000 people.

Attacks on UK or Western interests: In the early 1990s the PKK attempted to bring increased pressure on the Turkish government by undertaking a terrorist campaign aimed at Western interests and investment in south east Turkey. This campaign initially lead to the kidnapping of a number of western tourists, including several British citizens. In 1993/94 the PKK abandoned its kidnapping campaign and began to target Western investment in south east Turkey. As part of this campaign a Shell Oil refinery was attacked. Also in 1993/94 the PKK began an urban bombing campaign aimed at Turkey's tourist resorts and for the first time undertook attacks outside south east Turkey. This campaign resulted in the death of a number of foreign tourists, including a British citizen. Although the PKK appeared to have abandoned this campaign in 1995 it continued annually, until 1999, to threaten attacks against Turkey's tourist resorts.

Representation/activities in the UK: The PKK does not have any overt representation in the UK but operates covertly and has some support among the Kurdish community.


Revolutionary Peoples' Liberation Party - Front (Devrimci Halk Kurtulus Partisi - Cephesi) (DHKP-C)

Aims: DHKP-C aims to establish a Marxist Leninist regime in Turkey by means of armed revolutionary struggle

History: DHKP-C was formed in 1993 following a split in the Marxist Leninist terrorist group Dev Sol (or Revolutionary Left). DHKP-C is indistinguishable from its predecessor Dev Sol in leadership, ideology, objectives and methods of operation.

Attacks: Since 1994 DHKP-C's terrorist activity in Turkey has been sporadic and it has not been able to operate with the same frequency and success as its predecessor Dev Sol. Despite this, DHKP-C has continued to undertake attacks against Turkish police and security forces targets, and in conjunction with these has also undertaken a number of high profile attacks, including the murder of the former Turkish Minister of Justice in April 1994 and the murder of a prominent Turkish businessman in January 1996.

Attacks on UK or Western interests: As with its predecessor Dev Sol, DHKP-C espouses an "anti-imperialist" stance particularly focused against the US and NATO. In the early 1990s, in direct response to the Gulf War, Dev Sol attacked American and British citizens and interests in Turkey, killing Andrew Blake, a British citizen working for a commercial company in Istanbul, on 19 August 1991. In June 1999, two DHKP-C terrorists were killed by Turkish security forces as they attempted to carry out a rocket attack on the US Consulate in Istanbul.

Representation/activities in the UK: DHKP-C has an office in London which is engaged in overt political activity.


Basque Homeland and Liberty (Euskadi ta Askatasuna) (ETA)

Aims: ETA seeks the creation of an independent state comprising the Basque regions of both Spain and France.

History: ETA was established in 1959 by a group of students who supported Basque separatism. ETA's first victim was a police chief, killed in June 1968, and its terrorist campaign has continued since then. ETA has engaged in peace talks a number of times since the early 1990s, and maintained a 14 month ceasefire until November 1999. Since then the group has engaged in an intense campaign of bombing and shooting directed mainly at political and security force targets. 

Attacks: ETA has killed over 800 people and carried out about 1600 terrorist attacks since it was formed. Over half of its victims have been members of the Spanish Armed Forces, Security Forces and the Basque Autonomous Police. The attacks have been carried out mainly in the Basque provinces including Navarra and in Madrid, Barcelona and Andalucia.

Attacks on UK or Western interests: ETA has rarely carried out attacks outside Spain, and has never directly attacked UK interests. In the early 1980s it kidnapped and killed two Spanish policemen and a dissident in France, and in 1992 small-scale bomb attacks were carried out against Spanish commercial and state interests in Italy and Germany. There have been a few attacks on French commercial interests in the past, but no recent attacks outside Spain or against any foreign targets. The main risk to UK interests is posed by collateral damage.


Representation/activities in the UK: ETA has no overt representation in the UK, although there may be a small number of sympathisers here. There are, however, long standing links between ETA and Irish republican terrorist groups.


17 November Revolutionary Organisation (N17)

Aims: N17 is a terrorist organisation which aims to highlight and protest at what it deems to be imperialist and corrupt actions, using violence.

History: N17 was formed in 1974 to oppose the Greek military Junta and its stance was initially anti-Junta and anti-US, which it blamed for supporting the Junta. Its first victim was an American diplomat, Richard Welch, who was assassinated on 23 December 1975.

Attacks: N17 has killed 25 people in over 80 attacks in the last 25 years. The group uses three methods of attack: close-quarter assassinations, rocket attacks, and improvised explosive devices. Its close-quarter assassinations have claimed 19 lives. Almost two-thirds of N17's attacks have been against domestic Greek targets but they have also included the murder of a British, 4 US and 2 Turkish diplomats. All N17 attacks have taken place on the Greek mainland in and around Athens.

Attacks on UK or Western interests: N17's first attack on UK interests was during the Gulf War in the early 1990s and attacks resumed in response to the NATO bombing of Serbia in 1999. In June 2000, N17 murdered Brigadier Stephen Saunders, the British Defence Attaché in Athens. The group has also carried out numerous small scale attacks in Greece on the interests of EU and NATO members. These included a rocket attack on HMS Ark Royal while it was docked in Piraeus in 1994.

Representation/activities in the UK: There is no indication that N17 has any representation in the UK.
 


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